Pottery Blog Bulldog Potters. Sallie Wade recalled a circuit that included the towns of York, Chester, Charlotte, and Lancaster, a total of about 100 miles. 1908.) (5" x 2.5"; signed by Earl Robbins; 1991), Two Small Three-legged Pots with Handles Artisans say that the younger generation of potters is opting for better paying professions S: Well, we have mostly pottery. I also sold to a man in Rock Hill. Well, we did. I took the pot and gave her three things to eat: a sandwich, a piece of fruit, and a piece of cake. This so-called "green" pot is allowed to dry for a few days, after which the potter thins the walls and smooths inner and outer surfaces using tools that may have been passed down from her/his mother or grandma or great granny. ( South of the Old Town, ten min by walk ), ☏ +36 40 494949 , +36 72 215611 , eszrevetel@mav-start.hu . By the nineteenth century the Catawba trade concentrated on a large market area that originally fanned out in an easterly direction from the Nation. Leconte again reiterated the value of Federer in the sport. (Nola Campbell, interview, 2 March 1981, BC). (Left: 2.75" x 2.5"; vase; incised and signed by Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History is a non-profit research & education organization in York, South Carolina USA; phone (803) 684-5852. I knew him good. Sara Lee Ayers marketed her wares in gift shops, airport terminal shops, museums, and Indian arts and crafts shops throughout the South. [We'd] just knock on doors and ask them if they'd like, if they had anything they'd like to trade for some pots or something or other like that. On the road to Spartanburg we sold in any small towns between here and there. She often preferred corn meal, flour, or food over money (Lula Beck, interview, 22 March 1977, BC) and obtained virtually all of her groceries through this barter system. Mr. Harris is holding a bow and arrows and, in his right hand, what appears to be a Great Blue Heron with an arrow through its body.) A single machine would g ive employment to . We never packed food. We just rambled. They ensure that Catawba pottery will remain the oldest art form still produced in South Carolina." They were, however, willing to go great distances to sell their wares. After cleaning and drying their clay, Catawba women grind it into very fine powder to eliminate gritiness from the final product. Although this is pure speculation, there can be no doubt about the tribe's connection with the actual waterway, for the Catawbas call themselves yeh is-WAH h'reh, or "People of the River." Univ. William (Buck) Canty spoke at the BYU Indian school graduation many times in the 1970s and toured with the Lamanite Generation in 1978. For unsigned pieces it is sometimes impossible to tell the difference, although Cherokee pots are often darker, even black, with less mottling. And we walked that trestle all the way across the Catawba River. ), Please scroll down for photos of other items in the Center's collection. Tea is no longer served in pots on trains, having been replaced by . History and Condition of the Catawba Indians of South Carolina. The Indians' New World: Catawbas and Their Neighbors from European Contact Through the Era of Removal. Jiang also points out that people don’t buy porcelain that often. The Harris family followed an old pattern of operation; they knew the route. They spread blankets on the ground, arranged their wares, and waited for the students to make purchases (Reed 1959; Blumer and Harris 1988). Some accompanied their mothers or grandmothers. Margaret Tolbert recalled that most of the pottery she bought was given to family members in Laurens, South Carolina (Margaret Tolbert, interview, 6 February 1977, BC). Warren B. Sanders, 5/13/1996)(Center: 4" x 2.5"; vase; signed by Viola Robbins, 1995) (Lula Beck, interview, 22 March. Ground was broken in 2020 at the site along I-85 just north of the SC/NC state line. (NOTE: Cherokee potters frequently use the same techniques employed by the Catawbas. (11" x 9"; signed by Sara Ayers, undated; head detail below right). (Left: 2.5" x 3"; a rather primitive small pot with rough incising; signed by F.H. ... even if it’s a broken piece of pottery. 5/1/2015 0 Comments Bruce Gholson and Samantha Henneke. Peddling pottery remained an integral part of Catawba life until quite recently, and even today some Catawba potters occasionally peddle their wares. They would go to a home, and they would bring out clothes and trade them for so many pieces of pottery, for a garment or something, and they would get clothes like that" (Doris Blue, interview, 24 March 1980, BC). . Left behind when the American frontier moved west, the Ca-tawba had to fend for themselves while surrounded by an alien European culture. Catawba Indian pottery is sometimes available through the tribe's headquarters east of Rock Hill SC, where there are also exhibits about Catawba history and culture (see map below). is not broken; the line represents reins. Charleston's most discriminating cooks considered the traditional Catawba cooking pot as essential for certain dishes (Simms 1859). Nettie Harris Owl sold at Friedman's, a dry goods store in Rock Hill (Frell Owl, interview, 15 May 1979, BC). Furthermore, what is represented as Catawba Indian pottery by sellers on eBay or other outlets sometimes isn't--an indication an unscrupulous seller may be trying to mislead potential buyers or, at best, simply hasn't done the proper research and makes unfounded or incorrect statements. The earlier the period, the wider the range of these wares. NOTE: All Catawba Indian pottery pieces shown on this page are from the collection of Susan B. Hilton and are on permanent loan to Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History; we thank her for her willingness to share this historically significant resource and to allow display of pottery images on these pages. Craig taught other potters in the Catawba Valley the hard-and-fast traditional methods he learned, occasioning a renewal of interest in pottery in the area when the outlook seemed bleak. Jesse Harris also had fond recollections of his family traveling by wagon to Spartanburg to peddle pottery: When I was a boy, we went to Spartanburg in a wagon with a cover on it. Blumer, T.J. 2007. Few of the students had money and the only commodity many could regularly offer was clothing; many a uniform was swapped for pottery. People knew her all over. Georgia Harris felt that peddling pottery was a thing of the past, but she took the opportunity to pay tribute to her grandmother's strength whenever possible. AKA Hazel Ayers, husband of Sara Ayers; 1989), Turtle Effigy Bowl (Check back later as we add descriptions and images for new pieces. His father John Alonzo Canty was the first Branch President of the Gaffney area, and James Patterson, his grandfather was the first Branch President of the Catawba … . They went on from there and found a swarm of bees, and grandma said that she wished that she could have the bees and take them home, but she had no way to get them. (Right: 3.5" x 2.75"; unsigned & undated, but a well-worn piece In his book on The Catawbas (1989), James H. Merrell states: "The Catawba women who continue to make pottery using the traditional techniques are an on-going link with the tribe's past. [She] went way up the river on one-day walks. We took 100 to 150 pieces, whatever they had made. See his very unusual "horse bowl" design (below). I always paid the Indians in some way. Perhaps the best-known Catawba potter in recent decades was Sara Ayers (1919-2002; above, with one of her signature pieces--a Chief Haigler pot), whose exemplary signed art is some of the most avidly sought by collectors. It shows distinctive mottling--in this case, tan and black--typical of the tribe's clay artwork. Hilton Pond Center for Piedmont Natural History near York, South Carolina, lies just 15 straight-line miles from the Catawba River, so it seems likely our property was traversed in times past by Catawba Indians exploring its tributaries. hand-formed bowl with rim etchings and very thin walls Just the women would go. The Catawba Indian Nation of the Carolinas. Arcadia Publ., South Carolina, 128 pp. I just drove the wagon, and they did the selling. "Way back when I was small people hardly ever had to buy clothes. (See photos of Benjamin P. Harris, above right; and, above that, a group of Catawbas at the S.C. Corn Exposition in 1913. Rebecca Pitchers are quite artistic but not very functional for water-dipping because of the tall handle. One of our main goals is to educate the younger generation of women and train them to craft pottery so they can continue the ceramic tradition, which is a main source of income for the community. Kimberly Ann Page, 1996) Mama and Aunt Dovie done this. But, the train is gone with this young generation which has put in an extra speed,” continued the 57-year-old. Blumer, T. J. “He makes us dream”- Henri Leconte on Roger Federer. (Unfortunately, disagreements among various factions of modern-day Catawbas have resulted in lack of unity within the tribe; the public often hears of this turmoil rather than the good work of many tribal members. Ida Harris regularly swapped her pottery for groceries at Massey's Store in Van Wyck. Several of these younger people produce traditional pottery, while others are exercising creativity in making original designs unknown to their ancestors--yet another indication the long-lasting legacy of Catawba Indian pottery-making is alive and well. unsigned & undated; likely from the 1950s or earlier), Small "Apple" Bowl An oral tradition within the tribe is that following the wedding ceremony the bride drinks from one spout of the jug and the groom from the other, after which they throw the pot behind their backs. (Right: 3.75" x 2.75"; symmetrical two-handled vase with unusual This "new generation" of indigenous potters includes, among others, such Catawbas as Monty Hawk Branham, Keith Brown, Edwin Campbell, Donald Harris, Billie Anne McKellar, Della Oxendine, Elizabeth Plyler, Brian Sanders, Caroleen Sanders, Cheryl Harris Sanders, Freddie Sanders, Marcus Sanders, and Margaret Tucker. . They'd have a snack [in a], croaker sack. ), Join the Margaret Brown often met the trains at Catawba Junction and sold pottery to passengers (Garfield Harris, interview, 15 April 1977, BC). In the mid-nineteenth century, William Gilmore Simms observed the Catawba on their yearly treks to Charleston and noted that they camped at known clay deposits along their route and made pottery. Catawba group that she has stored here on shelves. In Spartanburg we went to different houses and stayed there one or two nights. 1969. They would ring the bell and stand back and wait for someone to answer" (Anne Brock, interview, 19 April 1977, BC). When they went pot trading, they were often gone for two or three days at a time. Other commodities included syrup (LeRoy Blue, interview, 21 April 1977, BC), peas, corn, beans, and cured meat (Wesley Harris, interview, 10 May 1977, BC). "Kpando Fesi Pottery was founded with 35 women in 1998 as an adult education group for women living in communities in the Volta region of Ghana. Nearly all the contemporary senior potters have peddled pottery by foot, wagon, or automobile. (The photo below is reputed to be an outdoor furnace used by Catawbas to fire pottery.) of the Catawba Peoples The earliest mention of the Catawba in written accounts was made by Spanish explorers of the mid-sixteenth century. A similar venture was recalled by Sallie Beck who accompanied her parents to Great Falls by wagon to peddle pottery. Most likely this was not their first or their last visit to the Gastonia area. Large Horse Bowl These trips would take one or two days. For uncountable generations, the Catawba had labored as both hunters and soldiers. . Perhaps the Catawba Indian Nation's greatest lasting legacy is its pottery, made in simple, elegant style that is instantly recognizable. Earl died of Alzheimer's disease in March 2010, just two months after his wife Viola. (Left: 6" x 4.75"; pitcher; signed by Florence Wade, 1993) signed "Catawba Indian" & undated), Another theme frequently used by the Catawbas is the "Rebecca Pitcher," the general shape of a "ewer" with a single, tall, looping handle and a single flared spout (see examples above). Caveat emptor! . At night they hung a kerosene lantern on the wagon for a light (Bertha Harris, interview, 2 March 1981, BC). The Indians sold and bartered their wares until local needs were met, and then they moved on. A member of the Juan Pardo expedition recorded a number of names of villages and peoples of the area as they traveled up the Edisto and Santee river complexes. Among the more creative and accomplished of recent-era Catawba potters were the following: Evelyn Brown George (1914-2007, at left); Mildred Blue (1922-1997, first Catawba to graduate from Rock Hill High School); Emma Harris Canty Brown (1889-1961)--wife of Van Wyck SC ferryman Early Morgan Brown (1891-1963), who assisted Emma in scraping pottery pieces; Florence Harris Garcia Wade (1922-2017); Nola Campbell (1918-2009); Catherine Sanders Canty (1917-1999); Doris Blue (1905-1985); and Reola Harris (1921-1991)--twin sister to Viola Harris Robbins (1922-2010), in photo below right with husband Earl Robbins (1922-2010). (Right: 3.5" x 3.25"; small wedding vase with loop handle; Meanwhile, those Cherokees who could make tradi-tional Cherokee pottery were turning to other methods of making a living, and no new potters appeared in the younger generation. . Moore, D.G. She would, however, go on to become a master potter and match her grandmother's skills. But the younger generation wants to learn differently.” For Kozak and a lot of today’s L&D leaders, training is not about forcing students to memorize facts and protocols. Reprinted by AMS Press, New York, 91 pp. She carried them in the country on her back. . They hunted Piedmont woodlands and prairies and fished in the river and its feeder streams. The Catawba Nation. Wade, which would be Florence Wade; 1993) Assuming this is true, Catawba pottery is likely the oldest North American art form in continuous use to the present day. Pottery making was and remains a business for the Catawba, and over the years, the Indians took advantage of any form of transportation available to them in order to peddle. In addition to clothing, they offered finger rings, bracelets, shoes, and even brand new dresses. Lucinda promptly took her slip off and caught the bees in it and gave them to grandma. (Left: 1.75" x 3.5"; simple but nicely crafted piece likely made for When Europeans began settling in the Carolina Piedmont, the Catawbas remained friendly, but many succumbed over the years to "white man" diseases such as smallpox; by 1826 there were only about 110 true Catawbas left, some of whom moved elsewhere. Traditionally--and even today--Catawba men and children dig clay from isolated pits along the Catawba River; these prime sites are often kept secret from outsiders. She said, "About ready to go?" Now we'd walk all day long and trade. He said that he would be the happiest if the Swiss managed to reach the top again. Production and sale of pottery is not a "new" phenomenon, as indicated by a circa 1910 postcard (above) from the Indian Nation near Rock Hill SC depicting Catawba potter Sarah Jane Ayers Harris and seven grandchildren. Funding if you are interested in preserving and conserving natural aspects of the reservation verge extinction. 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