The family originated in the Mugello region of Tuscany, and prospered gradually until it was able to fund the Medici Bank. Livorno-Wikipedia Following the collapse of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the grand duchy was restored. A former grand duchy of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1605, Ferdinando succeeded in getting his candidate, Alessandro de' Medici, elected as Pope Leo XI. Tuscany then ceded its Lunigiana territories to Modena with the exception of Pontremoli which passed to the Duchy of Parma. File:Map Kingdom of Etruria.jpg. La Leopolda Official anthem of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Manuscript from 1754 with stamps, found in a drawer. Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1815–1859) National Anthem "La Leopolda" - Duration: 3:09. [16] To strengthen the new Tuscan alliance, he married the deceased Francesco's younger daughter, Marie, to Henry IV of France. The government was finally dissolved upon its annexation to the United Provinces of Central Italy in 1859. However, the constitution was so radically new that it garnered opposition even from those who might have benefited from it. His wife, Eleanor of Toledo, died in 1562, along with four of his children due to a plague epidemic in Florence. Tuscany was overcome with religious orders, all of whom were not obliged to pay taxes. [4], Francis Stephen of Lorraine, a cognatic descendant of the Medici, succeeded the family and ascended the throne of his Medicean ancestors. They were the founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. La Leopolda Official anthem of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Leopold was succeeded by Ferdinand III. [10] Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and his cousin King Philip II of Spain reacted quite angrily, as Florence was an Imperial fief and declared Pius V's actions invalid. ... 14:25. In the 19th century the population of the Grand Duchy was about 1,815,000 inhabitants. He also instituted several laws censoring education [30] and introduced anti-Jewish legislation. Chiarugi and his collaborators introduced new humanitarian regulations in the running of the hospital and caring for the mentally ill patients, including banning the use of chains and physical punishment, and in so doing have been recognized as early pioneers of what later came to be known as the moral treatment movement. The improvements of the Maremma occasioned much of the extraordinary expenditures. The Kingdom of Etruria, Tuscany's successor state during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1569, Cosimo de' Medici had ruled the Duchy of Florence for 32 years. He was the elder son of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Christina of Lorraine. The arrival of Napoleon Bonaparte meant the rule of the grand dukes was interrupted for approximately 20 years. In March 1809 a "General Government of the Departments of Tuscany" was set up, and Napoleon Bonaparte put his sister Elisa Bonaparte at its head, with the title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany. Leopold also approved and collaborated on the development of a political constitution, said to have anticipated by many years the promulgation of the French constitution and which presented some similarities with the Virginia Bill of Rights of 1778. [51] On 12 August 1530, the Emperor created the Medici hereditary rulers (capo) of the Republic of Florence. It was conquered by Napoleonic France in the late 18th century and became part of the Italian Republic in the 19th century. In a war against Austria, the Tuscan army demanded an alliance with the Sardinians in April 1859. In the neighborhood of the city are many villas and country houses, noled for their historical associations. Cosimo I died in 1574 of apoplexy, leaving a stable and extremely prosperous Tuscany behind him, having been the longest ruling Medici yet. Violante Beatrice loved him but Ferdinando did not return her affection, declaring her too ugly and too dull. Tuscany was nominally a state of the Holy Roman Empire until the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797. Cosimo III was succeeded by his son, Gian Gastone, who, for most of his life, kept to his bed and acted in an unregal manner, rarely appearing to his subjects, to the extent that, at times, he had been thought dead. In the Middle Ages, it saw many invasions, but in the Renaissance period it helped lead Europe back to civilization. Fortezza Vecchia changed its function to the coming of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine in 1737, by a defensive structure to a military college for officers of the Army of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1769) and afterwards in garrison (1795). The Duke of Lucca decided to abdicate his throne in favor of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Leopoldo II, while the Lucca territories of Montignoso, Gallicano, Minucciano and Castiglione di Garfagnana were given to Modena. [39] The proposal sank, and ultimately died with Cosimo in 1723. During his reign, Florence purchased the island of Elba from the Republic of Genoa (in 1548), conquered Siena (in 1555) and developed a well-equipped and powerful naval base on Elba. Since 1814 it has reverted to Austria, and was governed by one of the Archdukes. [21] Cosimo II's twelve-year reign was punctuated by his contented marriage with Maria Maddalena and his patronage of astronomer Galileo Galilei. Cosimo married Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, a granddaughter of Henry IV of France and Marie de' Medici. In 1847, Leopold, following the death of the then-incumbent Duchess of Parma, Marie Louise of Austria, and the secret Treaty of Florence (1844), annexed the Duchy of Lucca, (A state created solely to accommodate the House of Bourbon-Parma until they could re-assume their Parmese sovereignty). There were effectively only two dukes of the Republic of Florence, Alessandro de' Medici and Cosimo de' Medici, the second duke being elevated to Grand Duke of Tuscany, causing the Florentine title to become subordinate to the greater Tuscan title. Ferdinand aligned Tuscany with Austria. [5] The plan was about to be approved by the powers convened at Geertruidenberg when Cosimo abruptly added that if himself and his two sons predeceased his daughter, the Electress Palatine, she should succeed and the republic be re-instituted following her death. [26] The exchequer was barely adequate to cover the state's current expenditure, resulting in a complete termination of banking operations for the Medici. Francesco de' Medici was the fourth son of Grand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany and his wife, Maria Maddalena of Austria. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Italian: Granducato di Toscana, Latin: Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. Knight of the Golden Fleece. Born a Duchess of Bavaria, the youngest child of Elector Ferdinand Maria, she married the heir to the Tuscan throne, Ferdinando de' Medici, in 1689. He was restored the same year by Austrian troops. Don Carlos became King of Naples shortly after his arrival in Florence in 1735, by the Treaty of Turin. Leopold's concept of this was based on respect for the political rights of citizens and on a harmony of power between the executive and the legislative. The interest rate was lowered by 0.75%. [29], Cosimo III's reign was characterised by drastic changes and a sharp decline of the Grand Duchy. [16] Ferdinando was forced to marry his heir, Cosimo, to Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria to assuage Spain (where Maria Maddalena's sister was the incumbent Queen consort). Edit source History Talk (0) Wikimedia Commons has media related to Category:Grand Duchy of Tuscany. While not as internationally renowned as the old republic, the grand duchy thrived under the Medici and it bore witness to unprecedented economic and military success under Cosimo I and his sons, until the reign of Ferdinando II, which saw the beginning of the state's long economic decline. Leopold felt obliged to espouse Austria's cause. On 30 November 1786, after having de facto blocked capital executions (the last was in 1769), Leopold promulgated the reform of the penal code that abolished the death penalty and ordered the destruction of all the instruments for capital execution in his land. At the death of her grandfather Francesco Maria della Rovere, she inherited the duchy of Urbino which reverted to her second son, Francesco Maria, at her death. [5], In 1569, Cosimo de' Medici had ruled the Duchy of Florence for 32 years. He capitulated to foreign demands, and instead of endorsing the claim to the throne of his closest male relative, the prince of Ottajano, he allowed Tuscany to be bestowed upon Francis Stephen of Lorraine. Marguerite Louise d'Orléans was a Princess of France who became Grand Duchess of Tuscany, as the wife of Grand Duke Cosimo III de' Medici. This constitution was still in effect through the Medicean grand duchy, albeit the institutions decayed and powerless by the rule of Ferdinando II. Tuscany wis nominally a state o the Haly Roman Empire till the Treaty o Campo Formio in 1797.. References United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; House of Commons, John Bowring, 1839, p 6, Austria and Spain were ruled by the House of Habsburg; the two are interchangeable terms for the time period in question, Mora, G. (1959) Vincenzo Chiarugi (1759–1820) and his psychiatric reform in Florence in the late 18th century (on the occasion of the bi-centenary of his birth), which reverted to her second son, Francesco Maria, Tuscany during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro, Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine, "COSIMO III de' Medici, granduca di Toscana in "Dizionario Biografico, "Leopold II (holy Roman emperor) -- Encyclopædia Britannica", Bandiere degli Stati italiani preunitari: Toscana, "Leopold II (grand duke of Tuscany) -- Encyclopædia Britannica", Parliamentary papers, Volume 16 By the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. [25], Tuscany participated in the Wars of Castro (the last time Medicean Tuscany proper was involved in a conflict) and inflicted a defeat on the forces of Urban VIII in 1643. The grand duchy's capital was Florence. [19]. Historical Flags and Coats of arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Leopold was succeeded by Ferdinand III. The same year, a Tuscan state council was brought into being. Cosimo III was of a puritan character, banning May celebrations, forcing prostitutes to pay for licenses and, beheading sodomites. Leopold attempted to secularize the property of the religious houses or to put the clergy entirely under the control of the government. Tuscany was divided into two main administrative districts: the stato nuovo (the new state) consisting of the former Republic of Siena, and the stato vecchio (the old state), the old Republic of Florence and her dependencies. Like his uncle, Francesco I, government held no appeal for him, and Tuscany was ruled by his ministers. [14] Francesco is best remembered for dying on the same day as his second wife, Bianca Cappello, spurring rumours of poisoning. [42]. He is remembered today primarily as a patron of music. [9] Rumours circulated at the Viennese court that had Cosimo as a candidate for King of England. [11] The administration of the state was delegated to bureaucrats. She and her court left on 10 December. var script = document.createElement("script"); Moralistic Democracy. Francis I was Duke of Lorraine and Bar, positions that he later exchanged for that of Grand Duke of Tuscany, who came to marry Maria Theresa of Austria and become Holy Roman Emperor, though his wife effectively executed the real powers. Ferdinando was heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, with the title Grand Prince, from his father's accession in 1670 until his death in 1713. @media only screen and (min-device-width : 320px) and (max-device-width : 480px) { [28] Ferdinando II died in 1670, succeeded by his oldest surviving son Cosimo. [47] [48], The Napoleonic system collapsed in 1814, and the following territorial settlement, the Congress of Vienna, ceded the State of Presidi to a restored Tuscany. The said revolution toppled the throne of France, and caused disarray across Europe. A provisional government was formed on 27 April and the duchy joined with the Duchies of Modena and Parma in Dec 1859 to form th… This left his eldest son, Francesco, to rule the duchy. script.setAttribute("async", true); When Cosimo died, his oldest son, Ferdinando, was still a minor. Habsburg Grand Dukes of Tuscany Grand Dukes of Tuscany 1737-1801 Francis Stephen of Lorraine (1708-1765) as Grand Duke of Tuscany. The harbor is entirely artificial, and is formed and defended by a great mole or bulwark, and by strong military works; and outside is the road, formed by sandbanks surrounding the island of Meloria, on which the light-house is built . An "Extraordinary Giunta" was placed in charge under General Jacques François Menou. [26] The treasury was so empty that when the Castro mercenaries were paid for the state could no longer afford to pay interest on government bonds. [43], Leopold developed and supported many social and economic reforms. The Grand Duchy was then dissolved, and replaced by the Kingdom of Etruria under the house of Bourbon-Parma, in compensation for their loss of Duchy of Parma. [33] The once powerful navy was reduced to a pitiful state. Francis was reluctant to resign the duchy, but Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (Maria Theresa's father) stated that if he didn't relinquish his rights to Lorraine, he could not marry Maria Theresa. 1st Grand Master of the Order of St. Stephen The duke refused and fled to Bologna. Later, it settled down as a grand duchy. They were divided because the stato nuovo was a Spanish fief and the stato vecchio an Imperial one. Francis Stephen of Lorraine (1708-1765) Holy Roman Emperor from 1745 and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1737. The order was created by Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany. The city is two miles in circumference, and contains about 80,000 inhabitants, of whom one-fourth are Jews. He reigned from 1670 to 1723, and was the elder son of Grand Duke Ferdinando II. Although the U.S. Continental Congress appointed a Commissioner to the Court of the Grand Duke of Tuscany on July 1, 1777, the U.S. representative, Ralph Izard, was never officially received in Florence. In the mid-19th Century the territory contained 8,381 square miles, or 5,365,120 acres, which were thus occupied :-in the cultivation of the vine, 570,000 ; vine and olive, 390,000; arable, 840,000 ; woods, 1,400,000 ; chestnuts, 305,000 ; natural and artificial meadows, 70,000; pastures, 1,600,000; various smaller products, 70,000; building, 26,000-the small remainder being unemployed and not subject to taxation. [5], Following the Republic's surrender in the Siege of Florence, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor issued a proclamation explicitly stating that he and he alone could determine the government of Florence. Gian Gastone was not as steadfast in negotiating Tuscany's future as his father was. She had four children with her husband, two of whom would survive infancy: the future Cosimo III, Tuscany's longest-reigning monarch, and Francesco Maria, a prince of the Church. Though "Tuscany" remained a linguistic, cultural and geographic conception, rather than a political reality, in the 15th century, Florence extended dominion in Tuscany through the annexion of Arezzo in 1384, the purchase of Pisa in 1405 and the suppression of a local resistance there (1406). Siena was ruled by a governor appointed by the grand duke. It was conquered by the Romans 280 BC. Grand Duchy Of Tuscany. [23], Ferdinando was obsessed with new technology, and had several hygrometers, barometers, thermometers, and telescopes installed in the Pitti. Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Order of Saint Stephen Breast Star First Class, in bronze gilt, with iron pin and glass arms, 72mmx72mm, circa 1810-20, of superb quality manufacture, in … [20] Ferdinando's pro-Papal foreign policy, however, had drawbacks. Gian Gastone de' Medici was the seventh and last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany. The population amounted to about 1,600,000, or 190 to the square mile. Her brother-in-law, Prince Gian Gastone, befriended her out of sympathy, a friendship that lasted until Violante Beatrice's demise. Florence, (Firenze la Bella,) the capital, is situated on the Arno, in a delightful valley. He continued his father's Austrian/Imperial alliance, cementing it by marrying Johanna of Austria. The Second Austro-Sardinian war broke out in the summer of 1859. Leopold was contemporarily acknowledged as a liberal monarch. Coordinates: 43°N11°E / 43°N 11°E / 43; 11, The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Italian : Granducato di Toscana; Latin : Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Republic of Florence. His descendants ruled, and resided in, the grand duchy until its end in 1859, barring one interruption, when Napoleon Bonaparte gave Tuscany to the House of Bourbon-Parma (Kingdom of Etruria, 1801–7). Cosimo frequently paid the Holy Roman Emperor, his feudal overlord, high dues. All items (1) A 11-07-2011 03:01:14 ZULU. He was successively a Governor of Siena, cardinal and later the heir of the duchy of Montefeltro by right of his mother. Leopold himself died in 1792.  The people of Etruria were named Etruscans, and their complex culture was centered on numerous city-states, such as Veii. ½ Siliqua - In the name of Heraclius, 610-641 (620-700) Silver • 0.25 g BMC Vandal# 41 . [18] Francesco and Ferdinando, due to lax distinction between Medici and Tuscan state property, are thought to be wealthier than their ancestor, Cosimo de' Medici, the founder of the dynasty. In February 1849, Leopold II had to abandon Tuscany to Republicans and sought refuge in the Neapolitan city of Gaeta. [5] Vittoria della Rovere brought the Duchies of Montefeltro and Rovere into the family in 1631, upon her death in 1694, they passed to her younger son, Francesco Maria de' Medici. Cosimo also banned the clergy from holding administrative positions and promulgated laws of freedom of religion, which were unknown during his time. Cosimo experienced several personal tragedies during the later years of his reign. Violante Beatrice of Bavaria was Grand Princess of Tuscany as the wife of Grand Prince Ferdinando of Tuscany and Governor of Siena from 1717 until her death. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (or Granducato di Toscana in Italian) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. These deaths were to affect him greatly, which, along with illness, forced Cosimo to unofficially abdicate in 1564. [36] Meanwhile, the state's capital, Florence, had become full of beggars. The Holy League inflicted a crushing defeat against the Ottomans at the Battle of Lepanto. In thei… script.setAttribute("onerror", "setNptTechAdblockerCookie(true);"); [56], Gian Gastone, the last Medici, resigned the grand duchy to Francis Stephen of Lorraine. The Grand Duchy o Tuscany (Italian: Granducato di Toscana, Laitin: Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) wis a central Italian monarchy that exeestit, wi interruptions, frae 1569 tae 1859, replacin the Duchy o Florence. Leghorn, (Livorno,) a fine modern city, on the shores of the Mediterranean, is one of the principal commercial towns of Europe, an advantage that it owes to its being a free port, where the productions of all countries can be landed and re-shipped without restriction. Its ship-building is extensive, and vessels of war of 60 guns have been built in its slips. document.cookie = "__adblocker=; expires=Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:00:00 GMT; path=/"; His 49-year rule was punctuated by the beginning of Tuscany's long economic decline, which was further exasperated by his successor, Cosimo III de' Medici. Cosimo III de' Medici was the penultimate (sixth) Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany. [46]. The great square is spacious, and the Duomo or Cathedral, is a noble building. Before the Roman times, the area of today's Tuscany was called Eturia, because of the Etruscan culture. Etruria lasted less than a decade. The Spanish reaction was to construct a citadel on their portion of the island of Elba. [24] In 1657, Leopoldo de' Medici, the Grand Duke's youngest brother, established the Accademia del Cimento, which set up to attract scientists from all over Tuscany to Florence for mutual study. Francesco Maria de' Medici was a member of the House of Medici. Leopold also abolished capital punishment. Tuscany is named after its pre-Roman inhabitants, the Etruscans. Following Ferdinand's death, his elder son, Leopold II, succeeded him. Volterra is noted for its salt works, and Signa may be considered as the centre of the straw-hat manufactures, a handicraft which forms not only a chief employment to the Tuscans, but which also furnishes an article of commerce to every other country. A few years later Leopold undertook the project of building a new hospital, the Bonifacio. The Order of Saint Stephen is a Roman Catholic Tuscan dynastic military order founded in 1561. [35] He sent munitions to the Emperor during the Battle of Vienna. Married Eleanor of Toledo (1522 – 1562) daughter of Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, Marquis of Villafranca. (function(src){var a=document.createElement("script");a.type="text/javascript";a.async=true;a.src=src;var b=document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0];b.parentNode.insertBefore(a,b)})("//experience.tinypass.com/xbuilder/experience/load?aid=bYdYZQml5V"); Tuscany is the Etruria of the ancients. Francis I (as Francis Stephen became known) lived in Florence briefly with his wife, the Habsburg heiress Maria Theresa, who became Tuscany's grand duchess. Francis did not live in his Tuscan realm, and lived in the capital of his wife's realm, Vienna. [14], Ferdinando eagerly assumed the government of Tuscany. Officially, the territory never was part of Austria-Hungary. With him, she had eight children, including a duchess of Parma, a grand duke of Tuscany, and an archduchess of Further Austria. Overview Policies People Government Economy Rank Trend Cards Civil Rights, Economy, & Political Freedom. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany (1723-1737) Cosimo I de' Medici (1519 – 1574) Duke of Florence from 1537 to 1574, reigning as the first Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1569. Giuliano Dami was the favourite and valet of Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. [13], Francesco had little interest in governing his realm, instead participating in scientific experiments. [54] The Council of Two Hundred was a petitions court; membership was for life. The United States Army Field Band Recommended for you. On 30 May 1808, Etruria was formally annexed to France. Livorno was bought in 1421 and become the harbour of Florence. [19] The Grand Duke alone had the prerogative to exploit the state's mineral and salt resources. An excellent musician himself, he attracted top musicians to Florence and thus made it an important musical center. [40] In 1731, the Powers gathered at Vienna to decide who would succeed Gian Gastone. His affinity for Austria was equally unpalatable. Leghorn in the 15th century was only an inconsiderable port, and it was not until the middle of the 17th century that its liberality to the Jews, and other strangers, laid the foundation of its modern prosperity, and accomplished the transfer of Tuscan commerce to its port. Later, it settled down as a grand duchy. Henry explicitly stated that he would defend Tuscany from Spanish aggression, but later reneged. [49] Despite his merits, most his subjects still dismissed him as a foreigner. [55], Over time, the Medici acquired several territories, which included: the County of Pitigliano, purchased from the Orsini family in 1604; the County of Santa Fiora, acquired from the House of Sforza in 1633; Spain ceded Pontremoli in 1650, Silvia Piccolomini sold her estates, the Marquisate of Castiglione at the time of Cosimo I, Lordship of Pietra Santa, and the Duchy of Capistrano and the city of Penna in the Kingdom of Naples. Tuscany was formally annexed to Sardinia in 1860, as a part of the unification of Italy, following a landslide referendum, in which 95% of voters approved. Cosimo II de' Medici was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1609 until his death. Edit. } … During his reign, Florence purchased the island of Elba from the Republic of Genoa (in 1548), [6] conquered Siena (in 1555) [7] and developed a well-equipped and powerful naval base on Elba. File:Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1840).svg. His reign also witnessed Tuscany's deterioration to previously unknown economic lows. One of its quarters is called New Venice, from its being intersected by a number of canals, by means of which goods are brought to the doors of the warehouses. Ferdinando died in 1609, leaving an affluent realm; however, his inaction in international affairs drew Tuscany into the provincial yolk of politics. Tuscany was divided into the départements of Arno, Méditerranée and Ombrone. Whence these leagues arrived in Tuscany, a concerned Ferdinand requisitioned an Austrian garrison, from his brother Emperor Francis of Austria, for the defence of the state. Neither of Cosimo's two sons was a suitable heir; Ferdinando was an alcoholic and epileptic, while his younger son, Gian Gastone, according to historian Paul Strathern, was not appropriate material[ clarification needed ] for the role of sovereign. If Leopold's line were to become extinct, it would revert to the main line. It was conquered by Napoleonic France in the late 18th century and became part of the Italian Republic in the 19th century. 11:27. In Tuscany, Leopold II sanctioned a liberal constitution; and instituted a liberal ministry. House of Commons –, The Papal Bull that created the Grand Duchy, Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia), Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states, Museum of the Risorgimento (Castelfidardo). 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