Journal of Power 3(3), 405–25. Although robustness features prominently in a handful of social science contributions (Hood 1991; Leifer 1991; Marshall 2008; Schoon 2008; Capano and Woo 2017), we need more research on how public governance in general and planning in particular can provide robust solutions in the face of turbulence, and how modularity may help to enhance future adaptability and polyvalence. Now, it is seen as a major asset in global competition in which the quality of the urban environment is a key parameter in the effort to attract highly qualified people and innovative businesses (Ministry of the Environment 2007: 8–12). However, from the point of view of the residents, this might appear to be a positive development. Emerson, K., T. Nabatchi, and S. Balogh. Policy Sciences 50(3), 399–426. Housing and local service functions should cluster around the stations on new train lines that would provide fast and efficient transport to workplaces at the roots of the fingers and in the inner city. Fingerplanen og Transportkorridorerne. Copenhagen has long been committed to a compact, sustainable regional urban form. To further justify the claim that robustness is important for the success of the Finger Plan, let us look at a quote from one of the recent Finger Plans published by the Ministry of the Environment: The urban finger structure appears to be a highly robust structure that has informed urban development in the metropolitan area since the first Finger As already mentioned, everything started with a new generation of planners who met over lunch to discuss their grand planning ideas. The continued devolution of powers and tasks to regional and local governments and individual public service organizations such as hospitals and schools meant that public bureaucracy was combined with a strong professional rule that gave the well-educated public professions inhabiting the public welfare institutions considerable power and discretion (Andersen et al. In the 1930s, a series of independent expert committees had worked on housing development, railroad lines, traffic plans, and the preservation of large stretches of open land. Planning with Complexity (London: Routledge). You could not be signed in, please check and try again. 2007. This would create an incoherent amalgamation of housing, business, and service functions without access to public transport and green areas. ‘Generalplansforudsætninger’. This chapter analyses the conditions for, and the adaptive development of, the Finger Plan. 2004. Private developers have no doubt cursed the strict enforcement of the core principle of the Finger Plan that prohibits the construction of shopping malls and new neighbourhoods in the attractive green wedges separating the urban fingers. 2018. There was much more space out there, and a new urban centre would alleviate the pressure on Copenhagen while still being located in one of the fingers. Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis (Oxford: Oxford University Press). This new discourse halted the plans for the construction of new highways in and around Copenhagen (Elle 2004). The latter are treated as unique, singular, and exceptional experiences that can neither be generalized nor learned from. In the urbanized areas in and around the inner city, there were several examples of Copenhagen Central Station is the hub of the DSB railway network serving Denmark and international destinations. Planners, administrators, and politicians agreed that these unintended negative developments had to be stopped by a rational and comprehensive plan for the location of housing, business, service functions, transport lines, and green corridors. 2015). We will try to explain this enduring success at the end of the chapter but let us not forget that the Finger Plan is literally supported by strong path dependency (Pierson 1995, 2000). and the state, and a handful of independent experts from the planning, building, and transport sectors. Fortunately, there are enough bits and pieces to assemble a good understanding of the political and administrative dynamics. Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2019, PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). Inspiration for this exercise in holistic planning and its careful analysis of empirical trends and contexts came from England. The fourth and final factor was the pre-existing recognition of the need to preserve a number of green recreational areas, either through conservation or through the introduction of zoning laws. The post-war planning goal was accomplished by sticking to the ‘central city concept’ but letting housing and local service functions develop along five fingers stretching out from the inner city, which would constitute the palm of the hand. In addition, the ‘2007 Finger Plan’ talks about the Finger Plan as a celebrated cultural heritage artefact that will exert a strong influence on future planning. After that, along with recent reform of local administration system, the act was amended in 2005 and national planning itself was largely strengthened in 2007. in the greater Copenhagen area, local councils can object to proposals from other local councils in the area. new demands and developments. (p.220) It was crafted by a team of planners and architects led by Peter Bredsdorff, who also led the formulation and implementation of a number of local development plans from 1949 onwards, as well as the new General Plan for the metropolitan area that was adopted in 1952. rapid urbanization that was expected in the post-war era following the baby boom after the Second World War and the optimistic embrace of the newly won peace. Het Gras bij de Buren. Professional insights merged with political brokerage, communication, and resource mobilization. Johnson, M. P. 2001. Not only has it prevented urban sprawl, it has also prevented the construction of chaotic and congested cityscapes with a low quality of life. Rørbech, J. Let us look at two defining elements of policy robustness in relation to the Finger Plan and see how they help to explain its longevity. Hood, C. 1991. Fortunately, the planners had a keen eye for balancing urban areas with non-urban green areas, and for separating the two from each other while ensuring mutual proximity. The contemporary architect Jens Rørbech describes the Finger Plan as an ‘ingenious plan for the metropolitan area’ (Rørbech 2011). (p.222) The topic of discussion was the need for comprehensive metropolitan planning. Private investors constructed new neighbourhoods based on local plans developed by the municipalities. 33–59. When the S-train lines were first built and the new zoning law had banned housing in the green wedges, the development of new housing and service functions along the fingers almost took care of itself. The state monitors and helps to finance the planning activities; the regional authority coordinates between the municipalities traversed by the fingers; and the municipalities focus on their own local planning efforts, such as developing residential neighbourhoods and urban clusters around the S-train stations. 29–32. 2007. It was repeatedly eroded due to uncoordinated municipal planning, and the remaining green space was only narrowly rescued when the four local municipalities came together and made a joint agreement to preserve it (Vejre et al. The urban plan was drafted seventy years ago and still governs urban planning practices in the greater Copenhagen area. Over the years, the Danish Urban Planning Lab has made numerous efforts to collect historical accounts from all the main actors. At the end of the 1950s, a growing number of planners claimed that the Finger Plan had outlived itself and should be abandoned (Larsen 2004). It also built on an early recognition of ‘Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400–1434’. Apparently, the only major defeat they suffered was that the Work Committee refused to ratify the Finger Plan document. Hall, P. 1989. 2017. However, the planners would not have been able to mobilize the necessary support for their planning ideas or to secure public responsibility for their implementation and adaptation had it not been for the early emergence and continued expansion of an elaborate system of collaborative governance that constitutes the last of four inherent qualities of the successful Finger Plan. The second principle is ‘green wedges’, which establishes that the urban fingers should be separated by green areas in which no building or construction is permitted. Trust in the expertise of public sector professionals and their professional organizations, and willingness to listen to and discuss their public value proposals, certainly helped to get the Finger Plan off the ground. Under the guidance of a regional planning body, urban ar-eas are confi ned to linear corridors that are linked by The Finger Plan soon became a popular icon. A new theme in regional planning is the creation and maintenance of transport corridors on Zealand, where Copenhagen takes up the easternmost region. The Finger Plan has facilitated rapid urbanization in post-war Copenhagen without compromising the demand for distinct, coherent, and self-servicing neighbourhoods with easy access to fast and reliable transport to the inner city and to green The report goes on to list a number of challenges such as lack of affordable housing, the need for enhanced mobility for skilled labourers, demand for a liveable urban environment around the S-train stations, and the need to protect biodiversity and secure access to green areas. 2009. Public Administration 87(2), 234–58. Plan emerged in 1947. Århundrede (Copenhagen: DJØF Publishers). The case can be easily located in the CPI repository at www.centreforpublicimpact.org/observatory. De Rol van Planning bij de Bescherming van Groene Gebieden in Denemarken en Engeland (Rotterdam: NAI Publishers). 2013) to adapt a public policy to future turbulence and to rearticulate its different elements within changing political frameworks that bring forth new goals and aspirations. A lot of negotiations took place back and forth between the municipalities and the regional authorities, and in the end a compromise was reached to build a new urban centre outside Copenhagen in Høje Tåstrup on the railroad line to Roskilde, towards the south-west. Theisen, F. 2001. As Kingdon (1984) points out, policy success often rests on a good deal of luck and the ability to exploit the timing of different events and favourable opportunities in the environment. 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